The social security system in Luxembourg is in principle a contributory-based system different to other countries, which have a residence-based system.
The social protection system is composed of three major branches:
a) Social security: This branch comprehends healthcare, sick cash benefits, maternity and paternity leave benefits, accidents at work and occupational diseases, long-term care, invalidity benefits, old-age pensions, survivors’ pensions and family allowances. The social security benefits are financed by contributions paid either by the employer, the employee or the State. We include in this branch unemployment because the employee contributes to the system. The only requirements that the beneficiary has to fulfill are the objective criteria for granting each one of the benefits.
b) Social assistance system: This branch comprehends the guaranteed minimum income (RMG), which is financed by general taxation and is paid from the general budget of the State. The persons have to prove that they do not have sufficient means to live when their income does not reach a certain threshold.
c) Social aid: This is considered the safety net of the system. This aid allows people in need and their families to have a life in dignity. As the social assistance system it is financed by general taxation and in principle any person residing in Luxembourg can benefit from it if s/he fulfills the criteria. This benefit is granted and distributed by the social assistance offices of the municipalities.
After the Law of 13 May 2008 establishing the single status for salaried workers of the private sector, the administrative organisation of the social security system was revamped and regrouped according to the different branches of risk they were going to insure. The National Health Fund (CNS), the National Family Benefits Fund (CNPF), the Accident Insurance Association (AAA), the National Pension Insurance Fund (CNAP), the Mutual Insurance Fund of enterprises (MDE) and the Jointly Center of the Social Security (CCSS) are autonomous institutions with legal personality.
The social security institutions are placed under the supervision of the government, which exercises a control on the legality of the decisions issued by their boards. The statutory supervision, as well as the system’s conception, is carried on by the General Inspectorate of the Social Security (IGSS).